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Black Holes Encyclopedia




In the constellation Leo


13 billion light-years (4 gigaparsecs)


2 billion times the mass of the Sun


Larger than the diameter of Neptune's orbit around the Sun

Discovery Methods


Detection of an accretion disk

Although a black hole itself is invisible to the outside universe, many black-hole systems produce copious amounts of X-rays or ultraviolet radiation. That is because disks of superhot gas encircle the black holes. In the case of a star-sized black hole, the gas usually comes from a nearby companion star; the black hole's powerful gravity pulls gas off the surface of the star. In the case of a supermassive black hole, the gas comes from large clouds of gas in the crowded core of a galaxy, or from stars that pass close to the black hole and are torn apart by its gravitational pull. As the gas spirals into the black hole, it forms a wide, flat "accretion disk." The gas moves faster and faster as it spirals closer, so it's heated to millions of degrees. At such temperatures, the gas radiates most strongly in ultraviolet or X-ray wavelengths. These wavelengths are blocked by Earth's atmosphere, so only telescopes in space can detect them.

More about black hole discovery methods »

This document was last modified: May 13, 2013.